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Astrid Treffry-Goatley et al. (2018). Ibid. "Community engagement with HIV drug adherence in rural South Africa. A transdisciplinary approach." 239-246.

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Jordanova, Medicine and the visual arts.35. Stahl and Stahl, Seeing illness in art and medicine. A patient and printmaker collaboration.36. William Viney et al. (2015).

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R Garden (2014). "Social studies. The humanities, narrative, and the social context of the patient-professional relationship." In Health humanities reader, edited by Jones, Wear, Friedman and Pachucki, 127-137. New Brunswick, NJ. Rutgers University Press.44.

Holman and Borgstrom, Applying social theory to understand health-related behaviours.45. Claas Kirchhelle (2018). "Pharming animals. A global history of antibiotics in food production (1935–2017)." Palgrave Communications no. 4 (96).

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K G Sweeney et al. (2001). "A comparison of professionals' and patients' understanding of asthma. Evidence of emerging dualities?. " Ibid.

No. 27 (1):20-25. Doi. 10.1136/mh.27.1.2095. Treffry-Goatley, et al., Community engagement with HIV drug adherence in rural South Africa.

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Cole and Gallagher, Narrative and clinical neuroscience. Can phenomenologically informed approaches and empirical work cross-fertilise?. , 378.101. Cole, et al. Medical humanities.

An introduction.102. J Herman (2001). "Medicine. The science and the art." Medical Humanities no. 27 (1):42-46.

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10.1136/jmh.2006.000256109. Hume, et al. Biomedicine and the humanities. Growing pains.110. Saam Idelji-Tehrani and Muna Al-Jawad (2019).

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Using critical medical humanities to bridge an epistemic gap.115. Pelto and Pelto, Studying knowledge, culture, and behavior in applied medical anthropology.116. Prior, Belief, knowledge and expertise. The emergence of the lay expert in medical sociology.117. Gilman, Illness and image.

Case studies in the medical humanities.118. Cole and Gallagher, Narrative and clinical neuroscience. Can phenomenologically informed approaches and empirical work cross-fertilise?. 119. Macnaughton and Carel, Breathing and breathlessness in clinic and culture.

Using critical medical humanities to bridge an epistemic gap.120. C Teddlie and A. Tashakkori (2009). Foundations of mixed methods research. Integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioral sciences.

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(2016). "Imagination in narrative medicine." Journal of Child Health Care no. 20 (4):419-427. Doi. 10.1177/1367493515625134123.

Treffry-Goatley, et al. Community engagement with HIV drug adherence in rural South Africa. A transdisciplinary approach.124. WHO (2016). World Antibiotic Awareness Week.

2016 campaign toolkit. Geneva. World Health Organization.125. Across the three villages, 67% of the workshop attendees were female and the average age of the attendees was 44 years (range. 18 to 81 years.

Based on subsequently collected survey data).126. Nutcha Charoenboon et al. (2019)127. We thank an anonymous reviewer for highlighting the potential hazards of reproducing hierarchies through methods intended to challenge them in the first place.128. The research was reviewed and approved by the University of Oxford Tropical Research Ethics Committee (Ref.

OxTREC 528-17), and it received local ethical approval in Thailand from the Mae Fah Luang University Research Ethics Committee on Human Research (Ref. REH 60099). The service evaluation of the photo exhibition involved anonymised data collection and received a waiver for ethical approval from the University of Warwick Humanities &. Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee (HSSREC). However, all evaluation form respondents explicitly consented to the data being reported in research publications.129.

Marco J Haenssgen et al. (2018)130. National Statistical Office (2012). The 2010 population and housing census. Changwat Chiang Rai.

Bangkok. National Statistical Office.131. Data on the individual level would entail duplication of observations should both census survey rounds be included. Step-level data were aggregated on the illness level for analysis.132. Claire Charlotte McKechnie (2014).

"Anxieties of communication. The limits of narrative in the medical humanities." Medical Humanities no. 40 (2):119-124. Doi. 10.1136/medhum-2013-010466133.

Carusi, Modelling systems biomedicine. Intertwinement and the 'real'.134. Garden, Social studies. The humanities, narrative, and the social context of the patient-professional relationship.135. Emma Sacks et al.

(2018). "Beyond the building blocks. Integrating community roles into health systems frameworks to achieve health for all." BMJ Global Health no. 3 (Suppl. 3):e001384.

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G Bloom et al. (2015). Addressing resistance to antibiotics in pluralistic health systems. Brighton. University of Sussex138.

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Jordanova, Medicine and the visual arts.140. Macnaughton and Carel, Breathing and breathlessness in clinic and culture. Using critical medical humanities to bridge an epistemic gap.141. A Bleakley (2014). Ibid.

"Towards a 'critical medical humanities'." In, 17-26.142. Hume, et al., Biomedicine and the humanities. Growing pains.143. Nutcha Charoenboon et al. (2019)144.

Marco Haenssgen et al. (2018)145. WHO, World Antibiotic Awareness Week. 2016 campaign toolkit.146. The questionnaire did so by showing all survey respondents three images of common antibiotic capsules being used in Chiang Rai (green-blue.

Amoxicillin. Red-black. Cloxacillin. White-blue. Azithromycin—see questionnaire page 10 in the online supplementary material).

Respondents were asked to name what they saw, and all their answers were recorded (field-coded and as free text).147. The ‘desirability’ of the responses was field coded by the survey team. Sample responses (as instructed through the survey manual) for ‘desirable’ answers included, for example, “Only if the doctor says that I should”. Sample responses for ‘undesirable’ answers included “Yes, you can buy it in the shop over there!. € The variable should be interpreted as ‘the fraction of respondents who uttered a ‘desirable’ response’—the inverse is the fraction of responses that could not be deemed ‘desirable’ (eg, ‘do not know’ or ‘no opinion’).148.

Because recalled descriptions of medicine tend to be ambiguous, we limited our analysis to medicines where we had a high degree of certainty that they were an antibiotic. This was specifically the case if survey respondents mentioned common antibiotic descriptions such as ‘anti-inflammatory’, ‘amoxi’ or ‘colem’, if they indicated explicitly that they know what ‘anti-inflammatory medicine’ is (noting that the term describes antibiotics unambiguously in Thai), and if they subsequently mentioned any of the previously mentioned antibiotics during their description of an illness episode (conversely, we excluded cases were the medicine could not be confirmed as either antibiotic or non-antibiotic, including descriptions like ‘white powder’ or ‘green capsule’).149. Aristotle (1954). Rhetoric. Translated by Roberts.

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Doi. 10.2471/BLT.12.105445152. C Muksong and K. Chuengsatiansup (2020). Forthcoming.

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L Sringernyuang (2000). Availability and use of medicines in rural Thailand. Amsterdam. Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research.154. Although this was not the focus of the current paper, we note for full disclosure that the workshops, too, had mixed behavioural impacts.

The poster making sessions in Chiang Rai demonstrated for instance how our conversations about drug resistance and the introduction of messages from the World Health Organization entailed at times problematic interpretations like, “You shouldn’t take medicines that you have never seen before”—the research team responded to such interpretations directly in order to avoid misunderstandings. In addition, previous behavioural analyses documented that, while workshop participants demonstrated higher levels of awareness of drug resistance, alignment of antibiotic use with global health recommendations was mixed, and in one case, a villager started selling antibiotics after the workshop. For more details on the behavioural analysis, see Nutcha Charoenboon et al. (2019) and Marco Haenssgen et al. (2018).155.

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10.1177/1468794112446104IntroductionIn Australia, the USA and the UK, the number of hospital beds required for forensic mental health treatment doubled between 1996 and 2016.1 Current trends and future predictions suggest this demand will continue to grow. But, in an age where evidence-based practice is highly valued, the demand for new facilities already outpaces the availability of credible evidence to guide designers. This article reports findings from a desktop survey of current design practice across 31 psychiatric hospitals (24 forensic, 7 non-forensic) constructed or scheduled for completion between 2006 and 2022. Desktop surveys, as a form of research, are heavily relied on in architectural practice. Photographs and architectural drawings are analysed to understand both typical and innovative approaches to designing a particular building type.

While desktop surveys are sometimes supplemented by visits to exemplar projects (which might also be termed ‘fieldwork’), time pressures and budgetary constraints often preclude this. As the result of an academic–industry partnership, the research reported herein embraced practice-based research methods in conjunction with an academic approach. The data set available for the desktop survey was rich but incomplete. Security requirements restrict the public availability of complete floor plans and postoccupancy evaluations. To mitigate these limitations, knowledge was integrated from other disciplines, including environmental psychology, architectural history and professional practice.

With regard to the latter, knowledge is specifically around the design and consultation processes that guide the construction of these facilities. This knowledge was used to identify three contemporary hospitals that challenge accepted design practice and, we argue, in doing so have the potential to act as change-agents in the delivery of forensic mental healthcare. We define innovation as variation/s to common, or typical, architectural solutions that can positively improve patients’2 experience of these facilities in ways that directly support one, or a number, of key values underpinning forensic mental healthcare. While this article does not provide postoccupancy data to quantify the value of these innovations, we hope to encourage both designers and researchers to more closely consider these projects—particularly the way that spaces have been designed to benefit patient well-being—and the questions these designs raise for the future of forensic mental healthcare delivery.Now regarded as naïve is the 19th-century belief that architecture and landscape, if appropriately designed, can restore sanity.3 Yet contemporary research from the field of evidence-based design confirms that the built environment does play a role in the therapeutic process, even if that role does not determine therapeutic outcomes.4 Research regarding the design of forensic mental healthcare facilities remains limited. An article by Ulrich et al recommended that to reduce aggression patients should be accommodated in single rooms.

Communal areas should have movable furniture. Wards should be designed for low social densities. And accessible gardens should be provided.5 An earlier study by Tyson et al showed that lower ward densities can also positively improve patient–staff interactions.6 Commonly, however, the studies referenced above compared older-style mental health units with their contemporary replacements.7 There is little comparative research available that examines contemporary facilities for forensic mental healthcare, with the exception of one article that provided a comparative analysis of nine Swedish facilities, designed between 1990 and 2008.8 However, this article merely described the design aspirations and physical composition of each hospital without investigating the link between design aspiration, patient well-being and the resulting physical environment.There are two further limitations to evidence-based design research. The first is the extent to which data do not provide directly applicable design tactics. Systematic literature reviews typically provide a set of design recommendations but without suggesting to designers what the corresponding physical design tactics to achieve those recommendations might actually be.9 This is consistent for general hospital design.

For example, architects have been advised to provide spaces that are ‘psychosocially supportive’ since 2000, yet it was 2016 before a spatially focused definition of this term was provided, offering designers a more tangible understanding of what they should be aiming for.10 The second limitation is the breadth of research currently available. While rigorous and valuable, evidence-based design often overlooks the fact that architects must design across scales, from the master-planning scale—deciding where to place buildings of various functions within a site, and how to manage the safe movement of staff and patients between those buildings—to the scale of a bathroom door. How do you design a bathroom door to meet antiligature and surveillance requirements, to maintain patient safety, while still communicating dignity and respect for patients?. The available literature provides much to contemplate, but in terms of credible evidence much of this research is based on a single study, typically conducted within a single hospital context and often focused on a single aspect of design. This raises the question, is there really a compelling basis for regarding evidence-based design knowledge as more credible than knowledge generated about this building type from other disciplines?.

In light of the small amount of evidence available in this field, is there not a responsibility to use all the available knowledge?. While the discipline of evidence-based design has existed for three decades,11 purpose-designed buildings for the treatment of mental illness have been constructed for over three centuries. Researchers working within the field of architectural history also understand that patient experience is partially determined—for better or worse—by the decisions that designers make, and that models of care have been used to drive design outcomes since the establishment of the York Retreat in 1796. With their focus on moral treatment, the York Retreat influenced a shift in the way asylum design was approached, from the provision of safe custody to finding architectural solutions to support the restoration of sanity.12 Architectural historians also bring evidence to bear in respect of this design challenge, specifically knowledge of how the best architectural intentions can result in unanticipated (sometimes devastating) outcomes—and of the conditions that gave rise to those outcomes.13 There is a third, rich source of knowledge available to guide designers that, broadly speaking, academic researchers have yet to tap into. It is the knowledge produced by practitioners themselves.

Architects learn through experience, across multiple projects and through practice-based forms of enquiry that include desktop surveys (also referred to as precedent studies), user group consultations and gathering (often informal) postoccupancy data from their clients. Architects have already offered a range of tangible solutions to meet particular aspirations related to patient care. There is value in examining these existing design solutions to identify those capable of providing direct benefits to patients that might justify implementation across multiple projects. In understanding how the physical design of forensic psychiatric hospitals can best support the therapeutic journey of patients, all available knowledge should be valued and integrated.Methodology. Embracing ‘mode two’ researchThis research was conducted within the context of a master­-planning and feasibility study, commissioned by a state government department, to investigate various international design solutions to inform future planning around forensic mental health service provisions in Victoria, Australia.

The industry-led nature of this project demanded a less conventional and more inclusive methodological approach. Tight timeframes precluded employing research methods that required ethics approvals (interviewing patients was not possible), while the timeframe and budget precluded the research team from conducting fieldwork. The following obstacles further limited a conventional approach:Postoccupancy evaluations of forensic psychiatric hospital facilities are seldom conducted and/or not made publicly available.14Published floor plans that would enable researchers to derive an understanding of the functional layouts and corresponding habits of occupancy within these facilities are limited owing to the security needs surrounding forensic psychiatric hospital sites.Available literature relevant to the design of forensic psychiatric hospital facilities provides few direct architectural recommendations to offer tactics for how the built environment might support the delivery of treatment.The team had to find a way to navigate these challenges in order to address the important question of how the physical design of forensic psychiatric hospitals can best support the therapeutic journey of patients.‘Mode two’ is a methodological approach that draws on the strength of collaborations between academia and industry to produce ‘socially robust knowledge’ whose reliability extends ‘beyond the laboratory’ to real-world contexts.15 It shares commonalities with a phenomenological approach that attributes value to the prolonged, firsthand exposure of the researcher with the phenomenon in question.16 The inclusion of practising architects and academic researchers within the research team provided considerable expertise in the design, consultation and documentation of these facilities, alongside an understanding of the kinds of challenges that arise following the occupation of this building type. Mode two, as a research approach, also recognises that, while architects reference evidence-based design literature, this will not replace the processes through which practitioners have traditionally assembled knowledge about particular building types, predominantly desktop surveys.A desktop survey was undertaken to understand contemporary design practice within this building type. Forty-four projects were identified as relevant for the period 2006–2022 (31 forensic and 13 non-forensic psychiatric hospitals).

These included facilities from the UK, the USA, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, the United Arab Emirates and Ireland (online supplementary appendix 1). Sufficient architectural information was not available for 13 of these projects and they were excluded from the study. For the remaining 31 facilities, 24 accommodated forensic patients and 7 did not. Non-forensic facilities were included to enable an awareness of any significant programmatic or functional differences in the design responses created for forensic versus non-forensic mental health patients. Architectural drawings and photographs were analysed to identify general trends, alongside points of departure from common practice.

Borrowing methods from architectural history, the desktop survey was supplemented by other available information, including a mix of hospital-authored guidebooks (as provided to patients and visitors), architects’ statements, newspaper articles and literature from the field of evidence-based design. Available data varied for each of the 31 hospitals. Adopting a method from architectural theorist Thomas Markus, the materiality and placement of external and internal boundary lines were closely studied (assisted by Google Earth).17 When read in conjunction with the architectural drawings, boundary placement revealed information regarding patient access to adjacent landscape spaces.Supplemental materialA desktop survey has limitations. It cannot provide a conclusive understanding of how these spaces operate when occupied by patients and staff. While efforts were made to contact individual practices and healthcare providers to obtain missing details, such requests typically went unanswered.

This is likely owing to concerns of security, alongside the realities of commercial practice, concerns around intellectual property, and complex client and stakeholder arrangements that can act to prohibit the sharing of this information. To deepen the team’s understanding, a 2-day workshop was hosted to which two international architectural practices were invited to attend, one from the UK and one from the USA. Both practices had recently completed a significant forensic psychiatric hospital project. While neither of these facilities had been occupied at the time of the workshops, the architects were able to share their experiences relative to the research, design, and client and patient consultation processes undertaken. The Australian architects who led the research team also brought extensive experience in acute mental healthcare settings, which assisted in data analysis.To further mitigate the limitations of the desktop survey, understandings developed by the team were used as a basis for advisory panel discussions with staff.

Feedback was sought from five 60 min long, advisory panel sessions, each including four to six clinical/facilities staff (who attended voluntarily during work hours) from a forensic psychiatric hospital in Australia, where several participants recounted professional experience in both the Australian and British contexts. Each advisory panel session was themed relative to various aspects of contemporary design. (1) site/hospital layout, (2) inpatient accommodation, (3) landscape design and access, (4) staff amenities, and (5) treatment hubs (referred to as ‘treatment malls’ in the American context). These sessions enabled the research team to double-check our analysis of the plans and photographs, particularly our assumptions regarding the likely use, practicality and therapeutic value of particular spaces.Model for analysisWithin general hospital design, a range of indicators are used to measure the contribution of architecture to healing, such as the optimisation of lighting to support sleep, the minimisation of patient falls, or whether the use of single patient rooms assists with control.18 In mental health, however, where the therapeutic journey is based more on psychology than physiology, what metrics should be employed to evaluate the success of one design response over another in supporting patient care?. We suggest the first step is to acknowledge the values that underpin contemporary approaches to mental healthcare.

The second step is to translate those treatment values into corresponding spatial values using a value-led spatial framework.19 This provides a checklist for relating particular spatial conditions to specific values around patient care. For example, if the design intent is to optimise privacy and dignity for patients, then the design of bathrooms, relaxation and de-esculation spaces are all important spaces in respect of that therapeutic value. Highlighting this relationship can assist decision makers to more closely interrogate areas that matter most relative to achieving these values. To put this in context, optimising a bathroom design to prioritise a direct line of sight for staff might improve safety but also obstruct privacy and dignity for patients. While such decisions will always need to be carefully balanced, a value-led spatial framework can provide a touchstone for designers and stakeholders to revisit throughout the design process.To analyse the 31 projects examined within this project, we developed a framework (Table 1).

It recognises that a common approach to patient care can be identified across contemporary Australian, British and Canadian models:View this table:Table 1 Value-led spatial framework. Correlating treatment values with corresponding spaces within the hospital’s physical environmentThat patients be extended privacy and dignity to the broadest degree possible without impacting their personal safety or that of other patients or staff.That patients be treated within the least restrictive environment possible relative to the severity of their illness and the legal (or security) requirements attached to their care.That patients be afforded choice and independence relative to freedom of movement within the hospital campus (as appropriate to the individual), extending to a choice of social, recreational and treatment spaces.That patients’ progression through their treatment journey is reflected in the way the architecture communicates to hospital users.That opportunities for peer-led therapeutic processes and involvement of family and community-based care providers be optimised within a hospital campus. 20Table 1 assigns a range of architectural spaces and features that are relevant to each of the five treatment values listed. Architectural decisions related to these values operate across three scales. Context, hospital and individual.

Context decisions are those made in respect of a hospital’s location, including proximity to allied services, connections to public transport and distances to major metropolitan hubs. Decisions of this type are important relative to staffing recruitment and retention, and opportunities for research relative to the psychiatric hospital’s proximity to general (teaching) hospitals or university precincts. Architectural decisions operating at the hospital scale include considerations of how secure site boundaries are provided. How buildings are laid out on a site. And how spatial and functional links are set up between those buildings.

This is important relative to the movement of patients and staff across a site, including the location and functionality of therapeutic hubs. But it can also impact patient and community psychology. The design of external fences, in particular, can compound feelings of confinement for patients. Focus community attention on the custodial role of a facility over and above its therapeutic function. And influence perceptions of safety and security for the community immediately surrounding the hospital.

Architectural decisions operating at the ‘individual’ scale are those that more closely impact the daily experience of a hospital for patients and staff. These include the various arrangements for inpatient accommodation. Tactics for providing patients with landscape access and views. And the question of staff spaces relative to safety, ease of communication and collaboration. Approaches to landscape, inpatient accommodation and concerns of staff supervision are closely intertwined.Findings.

What we learnt from 31 contemporary psychiatric hospital projectsForensic psychiatric hospitals treat patients who require mental health treatment in addition to a history of criminal offending or who are at risk of committing a criminal offence. Primarily, these include patients who are unfit to stand trial and those found not guilty on account of their illness.21 Accommodation is typically arranged according to low, medium or high security needs, alongside clinical need, and whether an acute, subacute, extended or translational rehabilitation setting is required. Security needs are determined based on the risk a patient presents to themselves and/or others, alongside their risk of absconding from the facility. The challenge that has proven intractable for centuries is how can architects balance privacy and dignity for patients, while maintaining supervision for their own safety, alongside that of their fellow patients, the staff providing care and, in some cases, the community beyond.22 In this section we present overall trends regarding the layout of buildings within hospital sites, including the placement of treatment hubs and the design of inpatient wards. Access to landscape is not explicitly addressed in this section but is implicit in decisions around site layout and inpatient accommodation.Design approaches to site layoutWe identified two approaches to site layout—the ‘village’ (4 from 31 hospitals) and the ‘campus’ (27 from 31 hospitals) (figure 1).

Similar in their functional arrangement, these are differentiated according to the degree of exterior circulation required to move between patient-occupied spaces. Village hospitals comprise a number of buildings sitting within the landscape, while campus hospitals have interconnected buildings with access provided by internal corridors that prevent the need to go outside. Neither approach is new. Both follow the models first used within the 19th century. The village hospital follows the model designed by Dr Albrecht Paetz in 1878 (Alt Scherbitz, Germany), which included detached cottages accommodating patients in groups of between 24 and 100, set within gardens.23 Paetz created this design in response to his belief that upwards of 1000 patients should not be accommodated in a single building, with security measures determined in relation to those patients whose behaviour was the least predictable.24 The resulting monotony of the daily routine and restrictions on patient movement were believed to ‘cripple the intelligence and depress the spirit’.25 Paetz’s model allowed doctors to classify patients into smaller groups and unlock doors to allow patients with predictable behaviour to wander freely within the secure outer boundaries of the hospital.26 This remained the preferred approach to patient accommodation for over a century, as endorsed by the WHO in their report of 1953.27 Broadmoor Hospital (UK, 2019) provides an example of the village model.The Broadmoor Hospital (left) follows a ‘village’ arrangement and includes an ‘internal’ treatment hub.

The Worcester Recovery Center and Hospital (right) follows a ‘campus’ arrangement and includes an ‘on-edge’ treatment hub." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 The Broadmoor Hospital (left) follows a ‘village’ arrangement and includes an ‘internal’ treatment hub. The Worcester Recovery Center and Hospital (right) follows a ‘campus’ arrangement and includes an ‘on-edge’ treatment hub.The campus model is not dissimilar to the approach propagated by Dr Henry Thomas Kirkbride, a 19th-century psychiatrist who was active in the design of asylums and whose influence saw this planning arrangement dominate asylum constructions in the USA for many decades.28 Asylums of the ‘Kirkbride plan’ arranged patient accommodation in a series of pavilions linked by corridors. While corridors can be heavily glazed, where this action is not taken, the campus approach can compromise patient and staff connections to landscape views. Examples of campus hospitals include the Worcester Recovery Center and Hospital (USA, 2012) and the Nixon Forensic Center (USA, under construction).Treatment hubs are a contemporary addition to forensic psychiatric hospitals. These cluster a range of shared patient spaces, including recreational, treatment and vocational training facilities, and thus drive patient movement around or through a hospital site.

Two different treatment hub arrangements are in use. €˜internal’ and ‘on-edge’. Those arranged internally typically place these functions at the heart of the campus and at a significant distance from the secure boundary line. Those arranged on-edge are placed at the far end of campus-model hospitals and, in the most extreme cases, occur adjacent to one of the site’s external boundaries (refer to Figure 1). Both arrangements aspire to make life within the hospital resemble life beyond the hospital as closely as possible, as the daily practice of walking from an accommodation area to a treatment hub mimics the practice of travelling from home to a place of work or study.With evidence mounting regarding the psychological benefits to patients of landscape access, it should not be assumed that the current preference for campus hospitals over the village model indicates ‘best practice’.

A campus arrangement offers security benefits for the movement of patients across a hospital site, while avoiding the associated risks of contraband concealed within landscaped spaces. However, the existence of village hospitals for forensic cohorts suggests it is possible to successfully manage these challenges. Why then do we see such a strong persistence of the campus hospital?. This preference may be driven by cultural expectations. From 24 forensic psychiatric hospitals surveyed, 10 were located within the USA and all employed the campus model.

Yet nine of those hospitals occupied rural sites where the village model could have been used, suggesting the influence of the Kirkbride plan prevails. The four village hospitals within the broader sample of 31, spanning forensic and non-forensic settings, all occurred within the UK3 and Ireland1. Paetz’s villa model had been the preferred approach to new constructions in these countries since its introduction at close of the 19th century.29 However, a look at UK hospitals in isolation revealed a more even spread of village and campus arrangements, with two of the four UK-based campus hospitals occupying constrained urban sites that required multi-story solutions. The village model would be inappropriate for achieving this as it does not lend well to urban locations where land availability is scarce.Design approaches to inpatient accommodationThree approaches to inpatient accommodation were identified. €˜peninsula’, ‘race-track’ and ‘courtyard’ (Figure 2).

The peninsula model is characterised by rows of inpatient wings, along a single-loaded or double-loaded corridor that stretches into the surrounding landscape. This typically enables an exterior view from all patient bedrooms and is not dissimilar to the traditional ‘pavilion’ model that emerged within 19th-century hospital design.30 In the racetrack model bedrooms are arranged around a cluster of staff-only (or service) spaces, still enabling exterior views from all patient bedrooms. The courtyard model is similar to the racetrack but includes a central landscape space. Information on the design of inpatient room layouts was available for 24 of the 31 projects analysed (15 of these 24 were forensic).Common inpatient accommodation configurations. (1) Peninsula.

Single-loaded version shown (patient rooms on one side only. Double-loaded versions have patient rooms on two sides of the corridor). (2) racetrack and (3) courtyard (landscaped). Staff-occupied spaces and support spaces (social space and so on) shown in grey." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 Common inpatient accommodation configurations. (1) Peninsula.

Single-loaded version shown (patient rooms on one side only. Double-loaded versions have patient rooms on two sides of the corridor). (2) racetrack and (3) courtyard (landscaped). Staff-occupied spaces and support spaces (social space and so on) shown in grey.Ten forensic hospitals employed a peninsula plan and five employed a courtyard plan. Of the non-forensic psychiatric hospitals five employed the courtyard, three the racetrack and only one the peninsula plan.

While the sample size is too small to generalise, the peninsula plan appears to be favoured for a forensic cohort. However, cultural trends again emerge. Of the 10 peninsula plan hospitals, 6 were located within the USA, and among the broader sample of 24 (including the non-forensic facilities) none of the courtyard hospitals were located there. Courtyard layouts for forensic patients occurred within the UK, Ireland, Denmark and Sweden. However, within these countries, a mix of courtyard and peninsula plans were used, suggesting no clear preference for one plan over the other.Each plan type has advantages and disadvantages (Table 2).

Courtyard accommodation provides the following benefits. Greater opportunity for patient access to landscape since these are easier for staff to maintain surveillance over. Additional safety for staff owing to continuous circulation (staff cannot get caught in ‘dead-ends’. However, the presence of corners which are difficult to see around is a drawback). Natural light is more easily available.

And ‘swing bedrooms’ can be supported (this is the ability to reconfigure the number of observable bedrooms on a nursing ward by opening and closing doors at different points within a corridor). However, courtyard accommodation requires a larger site area so is better suited to rural locations than urban and is not well suited to multi-story facilities. Peninsula accommodation enables geographical separation, giving medical teams greater opportunity to manage which patients are housed together (‘cohorting’). Blind corners can be avoided to assist safety and surveillance. Travel distances can be minimised.

Finally, the absence of continuous circulation provides greater flexibility for creating social spaces for patients with graduated degrees of (semi-)privacy.View this table:Table 2 Advantages and disadvantages of peninsula versus courtyard accommodationAnother important consideration related to inpatient accommodation is ward size. The number of bedrooms clustered together, alongside the amount of dedicated living space associated with these bedrooms. Ward size can influence patient agitation and aggression, alongside ease of supervision, staff anxiety and safety.31 The most common ward sizes were 24 or 32 beds, further subdivided into subclusters of 8 beds. Typically, each ward was provided with one large living space that all 24 or 32 patients used together. More advanced approaches gave patients a choice of living spaces.

For example, at Coalinga Hospital, patients could occupy a small living space available to only 8 patients, or a larger space that all 24 patients had access to. We describe this approach as more advanced since both 19th-century understandings alongside recent research by Ulrich et al confirm that social density (the number of persons per room) is ‘the most consistently important variable for predicting crowding stress and aggressive behaviour’.32 Only six hospitals had plans detailed enough to calculate the square-metre provision of living space per patient, and this varied between 5 and 8 square metres.Limitations of the desktop surveyData from a desktop survey are insufficient to obtain a comprehensive understanding of how design contributes to patient experience. To overcome this limitation, the following sections combine knowledge about how people use space from environmental psychology, knowledge about the design and consultation processes that guide the construction of these facilities, and understandings from architectural history. History suggests that seemingly small changes to typical design practice can effect significant change in the delivery of mental healthcare, the daily experience of hospitalised patients and more broadly public perceptions of mental illness. This integrated approach is used to identify three forensic psychiatric hospitals that challenge accepted design practice to varying degrees and, in doing so, have the potential to act as change-agents in the delivery of forensic mental healthcare.

But first it is important to understand the context in which architectural innovation is able, or unable, to emerge relative to forensic mental healthcare.Accepting the challenge. Using history to help us see beyond the roadblocks to innovationArchitects tasked with designing forensic mental health facilities respond to what is called a ‘functional brief’. This documents the specific performance requirements of the hospital in question. Much consultation goes into formulating and refining a functional brief through the initial and developed design stages. Consultation is typically undertaken with a variety of different user groups, and in a sequential fashion that includes a greater cross-section of users as the design progresses, including patients, families, and clinical and security staff.

Despite the focus on patient experience within contemporary models of care, functional briefs tend to prioritise safety and security, making them the basis on which most major architectural decisions are made.33 In large part this is simply the reality of accommodating a patient cohort who pose a risk of harm towards themselves and/or others. A comment from Tom Brooks-Pilling, a member of the design team for the Nixon Forensic Center (Fulton, Missouri), provides insight into this approach and the concerns that drive it. He explained that borrowing a ‘spoked wheel’ arrangement from prison design eliminated blind spots and hiding places to enable a centrally located staff member to:see everything that’s going on in that unit…[they are] basically watching the other staff’s back [sic] to make sure that they can focus on treatment and not worry about who might be sneaking up on them or what activities might be going on behind their backs.34Advisory panel feedback confirmed that when the architectural design of a facility heightens staff anxiety this has direct ramifications for the therapeutic process. For example, in spaces where staff could become isolated from one another, and where clear lines of sight were obstructed, such as ill-designed elevators or stairwells, this can lead to movement being reduced across the patient cohort to avoid putting staff in those spaces where they feel unsafe.The architects consulted during the course of this research, including those who were part of the research team, articulated how the necessary prioritisation of safety, in turn, leads to compromises in the attainment of an ideal environment to support treatment. In the various forensic and acute psychiatric hospital projects they had been involved with, all observed a sincere commitment on the part of those engaged in project briefing to upholding ideals around privacy, dignity, autonomy and freedom of movement for patients.

They reported, however, that the commitment to these ideals was increasingly obstructed as the design process progressed by the more pressing concerns of safety. Examples of the kinds of architectural implications of this prioritisation are things like spatially separated nursing stations (enclosed, often fully glazed), when a desire for less-hierarchical interactions between patients and staff had been expressed at the beginning of the briefing process. Or the substitution of harder-wearing materials, with a more ‘institutional’ feel when a ‘home-like’ atmosphere had been prioritised initially. There is nothing surprising or unusual about this process since design is, by its nature, a process of seeking improvements on accepted practice while systematically checking the suitability of proposed solutions against a set of performance requirements. In the context of forensic psychiatric hospitals, safety is the performance requirement that most often frustrates the implementation of innovative design.

Thus, amid the complexities of design and procurement relative to forensic psychiatric hospitals, innovation, however humble, and particularly where it can be seen to contribute positively to the patient experience, is worth a closer look.In the historical development of the psychiatric hospital as a building type, two significant departures from accepted design practice facilitated positive change in the treatment of mental illness. The first was Paetz’s development of the village hospital which sought to replace high fences, locked doors and barred windows with ‘humane but stringent supervision’.35 While this planning approach may not have significantly altered models of care, it was regarded as ‘an essential, vital development’, providing architectural support to the prevailing approach to treatment of the time—that of moral treatment—which aimed to extend kindness and respect to patients, in an environment that was as unrestrictive as possible. The York Retreat is worthy of acknowledgement here as a leading proponent of moral treatment whose influence shifted approaches to asylum design, from focusing on the provision of safe custody to supporting the restoration of sanity. Architecturally, however, the differences in the York Retreat’s approach were mainly focused on interior details that encouraged patients to maintain civil habits. Dining rooms had white tablecloths and flower vases adorned mantelpieces, door locks were custom-made to close quietly, and window bars fashioned to look like domestic window frames.36 The York Retreat was originally a small institution, in line with Samuel Tuke’s preference for a maximum asylum size of 30 patients.

History confirms the extent to which this approach was not scalable and thus unable to be replicated widely for asylum construction. For these reasons, it has not been considered here as a significant departure from accepted design practice.The second significant departure from accepted design practice was the development of acute treatment hospitals, located within cities, adjacent to general hospitals and medical research facilities. The first hospital of this type was the Maudsley Hospital, led by doctors Henry Maudsley and Frederick Mott, in London. The design intent for this hospital was announced in 1908 but it was not opened until 1923.37 In proposing this hospital, Maudsley and Mott were motivated to bring psychiatry ‘into line with the other branches of medical science’.38 This 100-bed facility, located directly across the road from the King’s College (Teaching) Hospital, emulated the general hospital typology in offering both outpatient and short-duration inpatient care, specifically targeted at patients with recent-onset illnesses. The aspirations were threefold.

To avoid the stigma associated with large public asylums. To advance the medical understanding of mental illness through research collaborations with general hospitals and medical schools and via improved teaching programmes. And to both enable and encourage patients to access early, voluntary treatment on an outpatient basis.38 Today the Maudsley appears unremarkable, an unassuming three-storied building on a busy London street. But the significance of what this building communicated at the time it was constructed, and the extent to which it challenged accepted practice, should not be underestimated. The Maudsley sent a clear message to the public that mental illness was no longer to be regarded as different from any other illness treated within a general hospital setting.

That it was no longer okay to isolate those suffering from mental illness from their families or the neighbourhoods in which they lived.39 Following the announcement of the Maudsley, the ‘psychopathic hospital’ rose to prominence within the USA with Johns Hopkins University Hospital opening the Phipps Psychiatric Clinic, in Baltimore, in 1913. The psychopathic hospital similarly promoted urban locations and closer connections to teaching and research. The Maudsley can be seen to have played a significant role in the shift to treating acute mental illness within general hospital settings.In any discussion of the history of institutional care, there is a responsibility to acknowledge that the aspiration to provide buildings that support care and recovery have not always manifested in ways that improved daily life for patients. The five treatment values that underpinned the analysis framework for this project are not new values. The extension of privacy and dignity to patients and the delivery of care within the least restrictive environment possible were both firmly embedded in the 19th-century approach of moral treatment.

Yet the rapid growth of asylum care frustrated the delivery of those values to patients.40 Choice and independence for patients, the desire for a patient’s recovery progress to be reflected in their environment, and opportunities for peer support and family involvement have been present in approaches to mental health treatment since the formal endorsement of the ‘therapeutic community’ approach to hospital construction and administration in the WHO’s report of 1953.41 History reminds us, therefore, that differences can arise between the stated values on which an institution is designed and those which it is constructed and operated. The three hospitals discussed in the following section include innovative solutions that hold the promise of positive benefits for patients. Yet we acknowledge this a theoretical analysis. For concrete evidence of a positive relationship between these design outcomes and patient well-being, postoccupancy evaluations are required.Three hospitals contributing to positive change in forensic mental healthcareBroadmoor Hospital. Optimising the value of the village model for patientsNineteenth-century beliefs and contemporary research are in accord regarding the importance of greenspace in reducing agitation within forensic psychiatric hospital environments and in promoting positive patterns of socialisation.42 It is surprising, therefore, that enshrining daily landscape access for patients is not widespread within current design practice.

The Irish National Forensic Mental Hospital and the State Hospital at Carstairs (Scotland) both follow the model of the village hospital, but only in that they comprise a number of accommodation buildings set within the landscape, enclosed by an external boundary fence. At the Irish National Forensic Mental Hospital, the scale of the landscape—the distance between buildings and the lack of intermediate boundaries within the landscape—suggests it is highly unlikely that patients are allowed to navigate this landscape on a regular basis. By comparison, the architectural response developed for Broadmoor Hospital (2019) shows an exemplary commitment to patient views and access to landscape (Figure 3).Likely extent of landscape occupation by patients as indicated by the position of inner and outer secure boundary lines. (1) Broadmoor Hospital (rural site, UK), (2) Irish National Forensic Mental Hospital (rural site) and (3) Roseberry Hospital (suburban site, UK)." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 3 Likely extent of landscape occupation by patients as indicated by the position of inner and outer secure boundary lines. (1) Broadmoor Hospital (rural site, UK), (2) Irish National Forensic Mental Hospital (rural site) and (3) Roseberry Hospital (suburban site, UK).Five contemporary hospitals follow the logic of a traditional villa hospital, yet Broadmoor is the only one that optimises the benefits offered by this spatial configuration.

Comprising a gateway building and a central treatment hub, with a series of patient accommodation buildings positioned around it, the landscape becomes the only available circulation route for patients travelling off-ward to the shared therapy, recreation and vocational training spaces. Most patients will thus engage with the outdoors at least twice daily on their way to and return from these shared spaces. But in addition to accessing this central landscape, landscape views from patient rooms have been prioritised, and each ward is allocated its own large greenspace. Multiple, internal boundary fences enable patient access to the adjacent landscape to the greatest possible degree (refer to Figure 3). This approach provides patients with a diversity of landscape experiences.

This is important given the patterns of landscape use between forensic and non-forensic hospitals. In non-forensic facilities, patients are likely to have the choice of accessing multiple landscape spaces, whereas in forensic facilities access to a particular space is often restricted to one cohort, for example, a single ward group. This highlights a limitation of the courtyard model for forensic patients. Roseberry Park Hospital (2012) provides an example of how a high degree of landscape access can be similarly achieved for patients on constrained urban site, using a courtyard layout (refer to Figure 3).Providing patients with daily landscape access provides challenges to maintaining safety and security. Trees with low branches can be used as weapons, while tall branches can be used for self-harm, and ground cover landscaping increases opportunities to conceal contraband.

At the Australian hospital where advisory panel sessions were conducted (constructed in 2000), the landscape is occupied in a similar way and staff conveyed the constant effort required to ensure safe patient access to this greenspace. Significant costs are incurred annually by facilities staff in keeping the greenspace free from contraband and from several varieties of wild mushroom that grow seasonally on the site. Despite this cost, staff reported that both they and the patients value the opportunity to circulate through the landscaped grounds (even in inclement weather). Hence, the benefits to well-being are perceived as significant enough to justify this cost. These examples make evident that placing a hospital within a landscape is not enough to ensure patients are extended the well-being benefits of ongoing access.

Instead this requires that hospitals factor in the additional supervisory and maintenance requirements to maintain landscape access for patients.Worcester Recovery Center and Hospital. Spaces to support choice and a sense of controlResearch in environmental psychology, conducted within residential and hospital settings, confirms that the ability to regulate social contact can have a dramatic impact on well-being. The physical layout of spaces has been linked to both the likelihood of developing socially supportive relationships and impeding this development, with direct implications for communication, concentration, aggression and a person’s resilience to irritation.43 These problems can be more pronounced in a forensic psychiatric hospital as there is an over-representation of patients who have suffered trauma. Architects working in forensic psychiatric hospital design acknowledge that patients need space to withdraw from the busy hospital environment, spaces where they can ‘observe everything that is going on around them until they feel ready to join in’.44 It is surprising, therefore, that many contemporary forensic psychiatric hospitals still continue to provide a single social space for all 24 or 32 patients occupying a ward. The Worcester Recovery Center, by comparison, provides patients with a choice of social spaces that are designed to enable graduated degrees of social engagement.

This can support a sense of control to limit socially induced stress.Worcester is conceptualised as three distinct zones designed to resemble life beyond the hospital. The ‘house’, ‘neighbourhood’ and ‘downtown’ (Figure 4). The house zones include patient accommodation, employing a peninsula model. Each comprises 26 patient rooms, clustered into groups of 6 or 10 single bedrooms that face a collection of shared spaces dedicated to that cluster, including sitting areas, lounges and therapeutic spaces. A shared kitchen and dining room is provided for each house.

Three houses feed into a neighbourhood zone that includes shared spaces for therapy and vocational training, while the downtown zone serves a total of 14 houses. The downtown zone can be accessed by patients based on a merit system and includes a café, bank and retail spaces, music room, health club, chapel, green house, library and art rooms, alongside large interior public spaces. This array of amenities does not seem distinctly different from other contemporary facilities, where therapy and vocational training happen in a mix of on-ward and off-ward (often within a central treatment hub). The difference lies in the sensitivity of how these spaces are articulated.Details of the social spaces provided on each ward at the Worcester Recovery Center and the proximity of the ‘house’ (or ward) to the ‘neighbourhood’ and ‘downtown’." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 4 Details of the social spaces provided on each ward at the Worcester Recovery Center and the proximity of the ‘house’ (or ward) to the ‘neighbourhood’ and ‘downtown’.The generosity of providing separate living spaces for every 6–10 patients and locating these directly across the corridor from the patient rooms supports a sense of control and choice for patients. Frank Pitts, an architect who worked on the Worcester project, has written that this was done to enable patients to ‘decide whether they are ready to step out and socialise or return to the privacy of their room’.45 This approach filters throughout the facility, providing a slow graduation of social engagement opportunities for patients, from opportunities to socialise with their cluster of 6–10 individuals, to their house of 26, to their neighbourhood of 78 people, to the full downtown experience.

According to the architects, the neighbourhood thus provides an intermediary zone between the quiet house and the active downtown, which can be overwhelming for some patients.46 Importantly the scale of the architecture responds to this transition from personal to public space, providing visual indicators to reflect patients’ movement through their treatment journey. Spaces become larger as they move further from the ward. This occurs because instead of providing a single, large shared living space, patients are provided a choice of smaller spaces to occupy—these are not much bigger than a patient bedroom. Dining spaces are slightly larger, while downtown spaces have a civic quality. These are double-height, providing a greater sense of light and airiness.

These are arranged in a semicircle, opening onto a large veranda and greenspace. The sensitive articulation of these spaces, with regard to both their graduated physical scale and the proximity of the social spaces to the patient bedrooms, provides spatial support to these social transitions while empowering patients to control their own level of social interaction.Margaret and Charles Juravinski Centre for Integrated Healthcare. Creating opportunities for greater public engagement and supporting readjustment to the world beyond the hospitalOne of the most significant barriers to mental health treatment is the stigma associated with admission to a psychiatric hospital. We know that discrimination poses an obstacle to recovery and that the media fuels public fears related to forensic mental health patients.47 Two further challenges to mental health delivery include the disconnection patients can experience from the community, including from family and educational opportunities, and the risk of readmission in the period immediately following discharge.48 If architecture is capable of acting as a change-agent in the delivery of mental healthcare, then it needs to show leadership, not only in the provision of a better experience for patients but more broadly in taking steps to help shift public perceptions around mental illness. The Margaret and Charles Juravinski Centre for Integrated Healthcare (MCJC) (Canada) displays several similarities with the approach taken to the Maudsley Hospital.

Its appearance communicates a modern, cutting-edge healthcare facility. It does not hide on a rural site or behind walls. At five stories, and extensively glazed, MCJC communicates a strong civic presence. Its proximity to McMaster University (6 km) and to neighbouring general hospitals, including Juravinski Hospital (4 km) and Hamilton General Hospital (4 km), positions it well for research collaborations to occur, while its proximity to the Mohawk Community College, across the road, can enable patients with leave privileges to access vocational training. More importantly, it employs three innovative design tactics to target the challenges of contemporary forensic mental healthcare, providing an example for how architecture might broker positive change.The first innovative design strategy is the co-location of support services for outpatient mental healthcare.

The risk of readmission is highest immediately following discharge. A lack of collaboration between outpatient support services can result in fragmented care when patients are most vulnerable to the stresses associated with readjustment to the world beyond.49 MCJC includes outpatient facilities allowing patients to use the hospital as a stable base, or touchstone, in adjusting to life after discharge. Bringing these services onto the same physical site can also improve opportunities for coordination between inpatient and outpatient support services which can support continuity of care. The second design strategy is the co-location of a medical ambulatory care centre which includes diagnostic imaging, educational and research facilities. This creates reasons for the general public to visit this facility, setting up the opportunity for greater public interaction.

This could potentially advance understandings of the role of this facility and the patients it treats.The third innovative design strategy was to optimise the on-edge treatment hub for public engagement. While adopted across a number of hospitals, including Hawaii State Hospital, Helix Forensic Psychiatry Clinic (Sweden) and the Worcester Recovery Center, the on-edge treatment hubs at these hospitals are buried deep inside the secure outer boundary. At MCJC, the treatment hub is placed adjacent to the public zones of the hospital—although on the second floor—and this can be viewed as extension of the public realm and enables the potential for the public to be brought right up to the secure boundary line (which occurs within the building). MCJC is divided into four zones. The public zone, the galleria (the name given to the treatment hub), the clinical corridor and inpatient accommodation (Figure 5).

The galleria functions similarly to the downtown at the Worcester Recovery Center. Patients are given graduated access to a series of spaces that support their recovery journey. These include a gym, wellness centre, spiritual centre, library, café, beauty salon, and retail and financial services, alongside patient and family support services. While the galleria was initially intended to be accessible by the general public, this was not immediately implemented on the facilities’ opening and it is unclear whether this has now occurred.50 Nonetheless, the potential for movement of patients outwards, and families inwards, has been built into the physical fabric of this building, meaning opportunities for social interaction and fostering greater public understanding are possible. If understanding is the antidote to discrimination, then exposing the public to the role of this facility and the patients it treats is an important step in the right direction.Zoning configuration at the Margaret and Charles Juravinski Centre for Integrated Healthcare.

The galleria zone is on the second floor (shown in black). The arrows indicate main access points to the galleria. Lifts (L) and stairwell (S) positions are indicated." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 5 Zoning configuration at the Margaret and Charles Juravinski Centre for Integrated Healthcare. The galleria zone is on the second floor (shown in black). The arrows indicate main access points to the galleria.

Lifts (L) and stairwell (S) positions are indicated.ConclusionThe question of how architecture can support the therapeutic journey of forensic mental health patients is a critical one. Yet the availability of evidence-based design literature to guide designers cannot keep pace with growing global demand for new forensic psychiatric hospital facilities, while limitations remain relative to the breadth and usability of this research. A narrow view of what constitutes credible evidence can overlook the value of knowledge embedded in architectural practice, alongside that held by architectural historians and lessons from environmental psychology. In respect of such a pressing and important problem, there is a responsibility to integrate knowledge from across these disciplines. Accepting the limitations of a theoretical analysis and of the desktop survey method, we also argue for its value.

Architects learn through experience, across multiple projects. This gives weight to the value of examining existing, contemporary design solutions to identify architectural innovations capable of providing benefits to patients and thus perhaps worthy of implementation across multiple projects. History gives us reason to believe that small changes to typical design practice can improve the delivery of mental healthcare, the daily experience of hospitalised patients and more broadly public perceptions of mental illness. Architecture has the capacity to contribute to positive change.Here, we have provided a nuanced way for architects and decision makers to think about the relationship between architectural space and treatment values. An institution’s model of care and the therapeutic values that underpin that model of care should be placed at the centre of architectural decision making.

A survey of contemporary architectural solutions confirms that, generally speaking, innovation is lacking in this field. There will always be real obstacles to innovation, and the argument presented here does not suggest it is necessarily practical to prioritise therapeutic values at the cost of patient, staff and community safety. Instead, it challenges architects and decision makers to properly interrogate any architectural decision that compromises an initial commitment to supporting a patient’s treatment journey—to be more idealistic in the pursuit of positive change.Tangible examples exist of architectural innovations capable of positively improving patient experience by supporting key values that underpin contemporary treatment approaches. The Broadmoor Hospital optimises the value of the village model for patients, prioritising patient needs for frequent landscape engagement to support their therapeutic journey. The Worcester Recovery Center provides a generous choice and graduation of social spaces to support the social reintegration of patients at their own pace.

MCJC co-located facilities to support a patient’s readjustment to daily life postdischarge, while creating opportunities for public engagement that has the potential to foster greater public understanding of the role of these institutions and the patients they treat. In identifying these three innovative design approaches, we provide architects with tangible design tactics, while encouraging researchers to look more closely at these examples with targeted, postoccupancy studies. These projects provide hope that with a shared vision and commitment, innovation is possible in forensic psychiatric hospital design, with tangible benefits for patients.Data availability statementAll data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information. The primary method undertaken for this research relied on data publicly available on the internet.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.AcknowledgmentsThe opportunity to conduct this project arose out of a multidisciplinary master-planning and feasibility study, commissioned by the Victorian Health and Human Services Building Authority, to investigate various international solutions to inform future planning and design around forensic mental health service provision. The following people contributed their time and expertise in shaping the research process that enabled this article.

Neel Charitra, Stefano Scalzo, Les Potter, Margaret Grigg, Lousie Bawden, Matthew Balaam, Martin Gilbert, John MacAllister, Crystal James, Jo Ryan, Julie Anderson, Jo Wasley, Sophie Patitsas, Meagan Thompson, Judith Hemsworth, James Watson, Viviana Lazzarini, Krysti Henderson, Nadia Jaworski, Jack Kerlin and Jan Merchant.Notes1. Jamie O'Donahoo and Janette Graetz Simmonds (2016), “Forensic Patients and Forensic Mental Health in Victoria. Legal Context, Clinical Pathways, and Practice Challenges,” Australian Social Work 69, no. 2. 169–80.2.

The challenge of which terminology to select when writing about psychiatric hospital design remains difficult relative to the stigmas that surround this field. The term ‘patient’ has been used throughout, instead of ‘consumer’, as this article spans both historical and contemporary developments. In the context of this timespan, consumer is a relatively recent term, introduced around 1985.3. B Edginton (1994), “The Well-Ordered Body. The Quest for Sanity through Nineteenth-Century Asylum Architecture,” Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 11, no.

2. 375–86. Clare Hickman (2009), “Cheerful Prospects and Tranquil Restoration. The Visual Experience of Landscape as Part of the Therapeutic Regime of the British Asylum, 1800-60,” History of Psychiatry 20, no. 4 Pt 4.

425–41. Rebecca McLaughlan, 2012), “Post-Rationalisation and Misunderstanding. Mental Hospital Architecture in the New Zealand Media,” Fabrications 22, no. 2. 232–56.4.

Roger S Ulrich et al. (2008), “A Review of the Research Literature on Evidence-Based Healthcare Design,” HERD 1, no. 3. 61–125. Jill Maben et al.

(2015), “Evaluating a Major Innovation in Hospital Design. Workforce Implications and Impact on Patient and Staff Experiences of All Single Room Hospital Accommodation,” Health Services and Delivery Research 3. 1–304. Penny Curtis and Andy Northcott (2017), “The Impact of Single and Shared Rooms on Family-Centred Care in Children’s Hospitals,” Journal of Clinical Nursing 26, no. 11–12.

1584–96.5. Roger S. Ulrich et al. (2018), “Psychiatric Ward Design Can Reduce Aggressive Behavior,” Journal of Environmental Psychology 57. 53–66.6.

Graham A Tyson, Gordon Lambert, and Lyn Beattie (2002), “The Impact of Ward Design on the Behaviour, Occupational Satisfaction and Well-Being of Psychiatric Nurses,” International Journal of Mental Health Nursing 11, no. 2. 94–102.7. For further examples of this see Jon E. Eggert et al.

(2014), “Person-Environment Interaction in a New Secure Forensic State Psychiatric Hospital,” Behavioral Sciences &. The Law 32, no. 4. 527–38. C.C.

Whitehead et al. (1984), “Objective and Subjective Evaluation of Psychiatric Ward Redesign,” The American Journal of Psychiatry 141, no. 5. 639–44. Gabriela Novotná et al.

(2011), “Client-Centered Design of Residential Addiction and Mental Health Care Facilities. Staff Perceptions of Their Work Environment,” Qualitative Health Research 21, no. 11. 1527–38.8. Morgan Andersson et al.

(2013), “New Swedish Forensic Psychiatric Facilities. Visions and Outcomes,” Facilities 31, no 1/2. 24–88.9. For examples see Kathleen Connellan et al. (2013), “Stressed Spaces.

Mental Health and Architecture,” HERD. Health Environments Research &. Design Journal 6, no. 4. 127–168.

Constantina Papoulias et al. (2014), “The Psychiatric Ward as a Therapeutic Space. Systematic Review,” British Journal of Psychiatry 205, no. 3. 171–6.10.

R. Allen and R.G. Nairn, 1997. Alan Dilani, 2000, “Psychosocially Supportive Design - Scandinavian Health Care Design,” World Hospitals and Health Services 37. 20–4.

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Rebecca McLaughlan (2014), “One Dose of Architecture, Taken Daily. Building for Mental Health in New Zealand” (PhD diss., Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand).14. Although not fitting a strict definition of postoccupancy evaluation, the following articles were notable exceptions to this finding. Eggert et al., “Person-Environment Interaction,” 527–38. Roger S.

Ulrich et al. (2018), “Psychiatric Ward Design Can Reduce Aggressive Behavior,” 53–66. Catherine Clark Ahern et al. (2016), “A Recovery-Oriented Care Approach. Weighing the Pros and Cons of a Newly Built Mental Health Facility,” Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services 54, no.

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This was first created by first author for use for historical analysis during her PhD and is applied here to a contemporary setting. Refer to McLaughlan, “One Dose of Architecture, Taken Daily.”20. The following documents were referenced in compiling this list. Joint Commission Panel for Mental Health, NHS, UK (2013), “Guidance for Commissioners of Forensic Mental Health Services,” May, https://www.jcpmh.info/resource/guidance-for-commissioners-of-forensic-mental-health-services/. Cannon Design (2014), “St Joseph’s Integrated Healthcare Hamilton, Margaret and Charles Juravinski Centre for Integrated Healthcare,” Healthcare Design Showcase, September.

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Carla Yanni (2007), The Architecture of Madness. Insane Asylums in the United States. Minneapolis (London. University of Minnesota Press).29. Key British examples included the 1923 rebuild of London’s Bethlem Hospital which followed the villa model, alongside Shenley Park Mental Hospital (Middlesex County) and Barrow Mental Hospital (Somerset), both constructed in the early 1930s.30.

Taylor, Hospital and Asylum Architecture in England.31. Ulrich et al., “Psychiatric Ward Design Can Reduce Aggressive Behavior,” 53–66. O. Jenkins, S. Dye and C.

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Charles Mercier (1894), Lunatic Asylums. Their Organisation and Management (London. Charles Griffin and Company), 135.33. Morgan Andersson et al. (2013), “New Swedish Forensic Psychiatric Facilities,” 24–38.

Joel A Dvoskin et al. (2002), “Architectural Design of a Secure Forensic State Psychiatric Hospital,” Behavioral Scients &. The Law, 20, no. 3. 481-493.

J. Enser and D. Maclnnes (1999), “The Relationship between Building Design and Escapes from Secure Units,” Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health 119, no. 3. 170–4.

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Leslie Topp (2007), “The Modern Mental Hospital in Late Nineteenth-Century Germany and Austria. Psychiatric Space and Images of Freedom and Control,” in Madness, Architecture and the Built Environment. Psychiatric Spaces in Historical Context, ed. Leslie Topp, James Moran and Jonathan Andrews (London and New York. Routledge), 244.36.

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Nairn (1997), “Media Depictions of Mental Illness. An Analysis of the Use of Dangerousness,” Australian &. New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 31, no. 3. 375–81.

Greg Philo et al. (1994), “The Impact of the Mass Media on Public Images of Mental Illness. Media Content and Audience Belief,” Health Education Journal 53, no. 3. 271–81.48.

G Moon (2000), “Risk and Protection,” 239–50. T.F Main (1948), “Rehabilitation and the Individual,” in Modern Trends in Psychological Medicine, ed. Noel Haris (London. Buttefwork &. Co.

Ltd). D.A Fuller, E. Sinclair, and J. Snook (2016), “Released, Relapsed, Rehospitalized. Length of Stay and Readmission Rates in State Hospitals.

A Comparative State Survey,” 2016, https://www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/storage/documents/released-relapsed-rehospitalized.pdf. Leila Salem et al. (2015), “Supportive Housing and Forensic Patient Outcomes,” Law and Human Behavior 39, no. 3. 311.49.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Manchester (2016), “Transition between Inpatient Mental Health Settings and Community or Care Home Settings. Guideline,” August, https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng53/evidence/full-guideline-pdf-260695191750. Catherine Clark Ahern et al. (2016), “A Recovery-Oriented Care Approach,” 47..

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Comes out of Donald Trump's mouth." She argued that scientists would be "muzzled" because Trump is focused on getting reelected.Trump dismissed her comments as "reckless anti-treatment rhetoric" designed to detract from the effort to quickly ready a treatment for a disease that has killed about 190,000 Americans and infected more than 6 million others, according to a count by Johns Hopkins University."She's talking about disparaging a treatment so that people don't think the achievement was a great achievement," Trump said, answering reporters' questions as he stood at a lectern placed at the front door of the White House on the get viagra prescription online Pennsylvania Avenue side of the mansion."They'll say anything," he said. Trump insisted he hasn't said a treatment could be ready before November, although he has said so repeatedly and as recently as Friday.The president then proceeded to say what he had just denied ever saying."What I said is by the end of the year, but I think it could even be sooner that that," he said about a treatment. "It could be during the month of October, actually could be before November."Under a program Trump calls get viagra prescription online "Operation Warp Speed," the goal is to have 300 million doses of a erectile dysfunction treatment in stock by January.

He has spent hundreds of billions of dollars on what amounts to a huge gamble since treatment development usually takes years.Concerns exist about political influence over development of a treatment, and whether one produced under this process will be safe and effective.Dr. Anthony Fauci, the government's top infectious-disease expert and a get viagra prescription online member of the White House erectile dysfunction task force, told CNN last week that it is unlikely but "not impossible" that a treatment could win approval in October, instead of November or December.Fauci added that he's "pretty sure" a treatment would not be approved for Americans unless it was both safe and effective. Stephen Hahn, commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, has said the agency would not cut corners as it evaluates treatments, but would aim to expedite its work.

He told the Financial Times last week that it might be "appropriate" to approve a treatment before clinical trials were complete if the benefits outweighed the risks.White House press secretary Kayleigh McEnany, meanwhile, has given assurances that Trump "will get viagra prescription online not in any way sacrifice safety" when it comes to a treatment. And executives of five top pharmaceutical companies pledged that no erectile dysfunction treatments or treatments will be approved, even for emergency use, without get viagra prescription online proof they are safe and effective.Some concerns were sparked by a letter dated Aug. 27 in which Dr.

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Redfield did not say a treatment would be ready by then. Three erectile dysfunction treatments are undergoing final-stage, or Phase 3, clinical trials in the U.S. Each study is enrolling about 30,000 people who will get two shots, three weeks apart, and then will be monitored for erectile dysfunction s and side effects for anywhere from a week to two years..

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Dear Reader, cialis vs viagra Thank you for following the Me&MyDoctor blog. I'm writing to let you know we are moving the public health stories authored by Texas physicians, residents, and medical students, and patients to the Texas Medical Association's social media channels. Be sure to follow us on all our social media accounts (Facebook, Twitter, cialis vs viagra Instagram) as well as Texas Medicine Today to access these stories and more. We look forward to seeing you there.Best, Olivia Suarez Me&My Doctor EditorSravya Reddy, MDPediatric Resident at The University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical SchoolMember, Texas Medical AssociationHow does the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra factor into potentially abusive situations?. To stop the spread of erectile dysfunction treatment, we have isolated ourselves into small family units to avoid catching and transmitting the viagra.

While saving so cialis vs viagra many from succumbing to a severe illness, socially isolating has unfortunately posed its own problems. Among those is the increased threat of harm from intimate partner violence, which includes physical violence, sexual violence, stalking, or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse. Potential child abuse is an increased threat as well. The impact of this viagra happened so rapidly that society did not have time to think cialis vs viagra about all the consequences of social isolation before implementing it. Now those consequences are becoming clear.Social isolation due to the viagra is forcing victims to stay home indefinitely with their abusers.

Children and adolescents also have been forced to stay at home since many school districts have made education virtual to keep everyone safe from the viagra. Caregivers are also home because they are working remotely or because they are cialis vs viagra unemployed. With the increase in the number of erectile dysfunction treatment cases, financial strain due to the economic downturn, and concerns of contracting the viagra and potentially spreading it to family members, these are highly stressful times. Stress leads to an increase in the rate of intimate partner violence. Even those who suffer from it can begin cialis vs viagra to become abusive to other household members, thus amplifying the abuse in the household.

Some abuse may go unrecognized by the victims themselves. For example, one important and less well-known type of abuse is cialis vs viagra coercive control. It’s the type of abuse that doesn’t leave a physical mark, but it’s emotional, verbal, and controlling. Victims often know that something is wrong – but can’t quite identify what it is. Coercive control can still lead to violent physical abuse, and murder cialis vs viagra.

The way in which people report abuse has also been altered by the viagra.People lacking usual in-person contacts (with teachers, co-workers, or doctors) and the fact that some types of coercive abuse are less recognized lead to fewer people reporting that type of abuse. Child abuse often is discovered during pediatricians’ well-child visits, but the viagra has limited those visits. Many teachers, who might also notice signs of abuse, also are not able to see cialis vs viagra their students on a daily basis. Some abuse victims visit emergency departments (EDs) in normal times, but ED visits are also down due to erectile dysfunction treatment.Local police in China report that intimate partner violence has tripled in the Hubei province. The United Nations reports it also increased 30% in France as of March 2020 and increased 25% in Argentina.

In the U.S cialis vs viagra. The conversation about increased intimate partner violence during these times has just now started, and we are beginning to gather data. Preliminary analysis shows police reports of intimate partner violence have increased by 18% to 27% across several U.S. Cities. Individuals affected by addiction have additional stressors and cannot meet with support groups.

Children and adolescents who might otherwise use school as a form of escape from addicted caregivers are no longer able to do so. Financial distress can also play a factor. According to research, the rate of violence among couples with more financial struggles is nearly three and a half times higher than couples with fewer financial concerns.Abuse also can come from siblings. Any child or adolescent with preexisting behavioral issues is more likely to act out due to seclusion, decreased physical activity, or fewer positive distractions. This could increase risk for others in the household, especially in foster home situations.

These other residents might be subject to increased sexual and physical abuse with fewer easy ways to report it. What can we do about this while abiding by the rules of the viagra?. How can physicians help?. Patients who are victims of intimate partner violence are encouraged to reach out to their doctor. A doctor visit may be either in person or virtual due to the safety precautions many doctors’ offices are enforcing due to erectile dysfunction treatment.

During telehealth visits, physicians should always ask standard questions to screen for potential abuse. They can offer information to all patients, regardless of whether they suspect abuse.People could receive more support if we were to expand access to virtual addiction counseling, increase abuse counseling, and launch more campaigns against intimate partner violence. The best solution might involve a multidisciplinary team, including psychiatrists, social workers, child abuse teams and Child Protective Services, and local school boards. Physicians can help in other ways, too. Doctors can focus on assessing mental health during well-child and acute clinic visits and telehealth visits.

A temporary screening tool for behavioral health during the viagra might be beneficial. Governments could consider allocating resources to telepsychiatry. Many paths can be taken to reduce the burden of mental health issues, and this is an ongoing discussion. How should physicians approach patients who have or may have experienced intimate partner violence?. Victims of domestic assault can always turn to their physician for guidance on next steps.

In response, doctors can:Learn about local resources and have those resources available to your patients;Review safety practices, such as deleting internet browsing history or text messages. Saving abuse hotline information under other listings, such as a grocery store or pharmacy listing. And creating a new, confidential email account for receiving information about resources or communicating with physicians.If the patient discloses abuse, the clinician and patient can establish signals to identify the presence of an abusive partner during telemedicine appointments.To my fellow physicians, I suggest recognizing and talking about the issue with families.Medical professionals take certain steps if they suspect their patient’s injuries are a result of family violence, or if the patient discloses family violence. Physicians will likely screen a patient, document their conversation with the patient, and offer support and inform the patient of the health risks of staying in an abusive environment, such as severe injuries or even death. A doctor’s priority is his or her patient’s safety, regardless of why the victim might feel forced to remain in an abusive environment.

While physicians only report child and elderly abuse, they should encourage any abused patient to report her or his own case, while also understanding the complexity of the issue. Under no circumstance should any form of abuse be tolerated or suffered. Any intimate partner violence should be avoided, and reported if possible and safe. My hope is that with more awareness of this rising public health concern, potential victims can better deal with the threat of abuse during this stressful viagra – and hopefully avoid it..

Dear Reader, Thank get viagra prescription online you for following the Me&MyDoctor blog. I'm writing to let you know we are moving the public health stories authored by Texas physicians, residents, and medical students, and patients to the Texas Medical Association's social media channels. Be sure to follow us on all our social media accounts get viagra prescription online (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram) as well as Texas Medicine Today to access these stories and more. We look forward to seeing you there.Best, Olivia Suarez Me&My Doctor EditorSravya Reddy, MDPediatric Resident at The University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical SchoolMember, Texas Medical AssociationHow does the erectile dysfunction treatment viagra factor into potentially abusive situations?. To stop the spread of erectile dysfunction treatment, we have isolated ourselves into small family units to avoid catching and transmitting the viagra.

While saving so many from succumbing to a severe illness, socially isolating has unfortunately posed its own get viagra prescription online problems. Among those is the increased threat of harm from intimate partner violence, which includes physical violence, sexual violence, stalking, or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse. Potential child abuse is an increased threat as well. The impact of this viagra happened so rapidly that society did not have time to think about all the consequences of social isolation before get viagra prescription online implementing it. Now those consequences are becoming clear.Social isolation due to the viagra is forcing victims to stay home indefinitely with their abusers.

Children and adolescents also have been forced to stay at home since many school districts have made education virtual to keep everyone safe from the viagra. Caregivers are get viagra prescription online also home because they are working remotely or because they are unemployed. With the increase in the number of erectile dysfunction treatment cases, financial strain due to the economic downturn, and concerns of contracting the viagra and potentially spreading it to family members, these are highly stressful times. Stress leads to an increase in the rate of intimate partner violence. Even those who suffer from it can begin to become abusive to other household members, thus get viagra prescription online amplifying the abuse in the household.

Some abuse may go unrecognized by the victims themselves. For example, one important get viagra prescription online and less well-known type of abuse is coercive control. It’s the type of abuse that doesn’t leave a physical mark, but it’s emotional, verbal, and controlling. Victims often know that something is wrong – but can’t quite identify what it is. Coercive control can still lead to violent physical get viagra prescription online abuse, and murder.

The way in which people report abuse has also been altered by the viagra.People lacking usual in-person contacts (with teachers, co-workers, or doctors) and the fact that some types of coercive abuse are less recognized lead to fewer people reporting that type of abuse. Child abuse often is discovered during pediatricians’ well-child visits, but the viagra has limited those visits. Many teachers, get viagra prescription online who might also notice signs of abuse, also are not able to see their students on a daily basis. Some abuse victims visit emergency departments (EDs) in normal times, but ED visits are also down due to erectile dysfunction treatment.Local police in China report that intimate partner violence has tripled in the Hubei province. The United Nations reports it also increased 30% in France as of March 2020 and increased 25% in Argentina.

In the U.S get viagra prescription online. The conversation about increased intimate partner violence during these times has just now started, and we are beginning to gather data. Preliminary analysis shows police reports of intimate partner violence have increased by 18% to 27% across several U.S. Cities. Individuals affected by addiction have additional stressors and cannot meet with support groups.

Children and adolescents who might otherwise use school as a form of escape from addicted caregivers are no longer able to do so. Financial distress can also play a factor. According to research, the rate of violence among couples with more financial struggles is nearly three and a half times higher than couples with fewer financial concerns.Abuse also can come from siblings. Any child or adolescent with preexisting behavioral issues is more likely to act out due to seclusion, decreased physical activity, or fewer positive distractions. This could increase risk for others in the household, especially in foster home situations.

These other residents might be subject to increased sexual and physical abuse with fewer easy ways to report it. What can we do about this while abiding by the rules of the viagra?. How can physicians help?. Patients who are victims of intimate partner violence are encouraged to reach out to their doctor. A doctor visit may be either in person or virtual due to the safety precautions many doctors’ offices are enforcing due to erectile dysfunction treatment.

During telehealth visits, physicians should always ask standard questions to screen for potential abuse. They can offer information to all patients, regardless of whether they suspect abuse.People could receive more support if we were to expand access to virtual addiction counseling, increase abuse counseling, and launch more campaigns against intimate partner violence. The best solution might involve a multidisciplinary team, including psychiatrists, social workers, child abuse teams and Child Protective Services, and local school boards. Physicians can help in other ways, too. Doctors can focus on assessing mental health during well-child and acute clinic visits and telehealth visits.

A temporary screening tool for behavioral health during the viagra might be beneficial. Governments could consider allocating resources to telepsychiatry. Many paths can be taken to reduce the burden of mental health issues, and this is an ongoing discussion. How should physicians approach patients who have or may have experienced intimate partner violence?. Victims of domestic assault can always turn to their physician for guidance on next steps.

In response, doctors can:Learn about local resources and have those resources available to your patients;Review safety practices, such as deleting internet browsing history or text messages. Saving abuse hotline information under other listings, such as a grocery store or pharmacy listing. And creating a new, confidential email account for receiving information about resources or communicating with physicians.If the patient discloses abuse, the clinician and patient can establish signals to identify the presence of an abusive partner during telemedicine appointments.To my fellow physicians, I suggest recognizing and talking about the issue with families.Medical professionals take certain steps if they suspect their patient’s injuries are a result of family violence, or if the patient discloses family violence. Physicians will likely screen a patient, document their conversation with the patient, and offer support and inform the patient of the health risks of staying in an abusive environment, such as severe injuries or even death. A doctor’s priority is his or her patient’s safety, regardless of why the victim might feel forced to remain in an abusive environment.

While physicians only report child and elderly abuse, they should encourage any abused patient to report her or his own case, while also understanding the complexity of the issue. Under no circumstance should any form of abuse be tolerated or suffered. Any intimate partner violence should be avoided, and reported if possible and safe. My hope is that with more awareness of this rising public health concern, potential victims can better deal with the threat of abuse during this stressful viagra – and hopefully avoid it..

Viagra meme

Start Preamble viagra meme Centers for Medicare &. Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Final rule viagra meme. Correction. This document corrects typographical errors in the final rule that appeared in the August 13, 2021, Federal Register as well as additional typographical errors in a related correcting amendment that appeared in the October 20, 2021, Federal Register.

The final rule was titled “Medicare Program viagra meme. Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2022 Rates. Quality Programs and Medicare Promoting Interoperability Program Requirements for Eligible Hospitals and Critical Access Hospitals. Changes to viagra meme Medicaid Provider Enrollment. And Changes to the Medicare Shared Savings Program”.

  Effective date. This correcting document is effective on November viagra meme 29, 2021. Applicability date. This correcting document is applicable for discharges beginning October 1, 2021. Start Further viagra meme Info Allison Pompey, (410) 786-2348, New Technology Add-On Payment Issues.

End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information I. Background In the final rule which appeared in the August 13, 2021, Federal Register (86 FR 44774) entitled “Medicare Program. Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System viagra meme and Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2022 Rates. Quality Programs and Medicare Promoting Interoperability Program Requirements for Eligible Hospitals and Critical Access Hospitals. Changes to Medicaid Provider Enrollment.

And Changes to the Medicare Shared Savings Program” (hereinafter referred to viagra meme as the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule), there were a number of technical and typographical errors. To correct the typographical and technical errors in the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule, we published a correcting document that appeared in the October 20, 2021, Federal Register (86 FR 58019) (hereinafter referred to as the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS correcting amendment). In FR Doc. 2021-22724 of October 20, 2021 (86 FR 58019), there was an inadvertent omission and typographical error viagra meme that are identified and corrected in this correcting document. This document also corrects additional typographical errors in FR Doc.

2021-16519 of August 13, 2021 (86 FR 44774). The corrections in this correcting document are applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2021, as if they had been included in the viagra meme document that appeared in the August 13, 2021, Federal Register. II. Summary of Errors A. Summary of Errors in the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS Final Rule On page 44974, in the table displaying the continuation of technologies approved for FY 2021 new technology add-on payments and still considered new for FY 2022, we are correcting inadvertent typographical errors in the coding used to identify cases involving the use of the viagra meme BAROSTIM NEOTM System that are eligible for new technology add-on payments.

B. Summary of Errors in the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS Correcting Document On page 58023 in section IV.A. Of the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS correcting amendment, we inadvertently omitted corrections to pages 45133, viagra meme 45150, and 45157 of the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule, as summarized on page 58019 in section II.A. Of the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS correcting amendment. We are also correcting an inadvertent typographical error in the coding used to identify cases involving the use of RECARBRIOTM that are eligible for new technology add-on payments.

III viagra meme. Waiver of Proposed Rulemaking and Delay in Effective Date Under 5 U.S.C. 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), the agency is required to publish a notice of the proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register before the provisions of a rule take effect. Similarly, section 1871(b)(1) of the Act requires the Secretary to provide for notice of the proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register and provide viagra meme a Start Printed Page 67875 period of not less than 60 days for public comment. In addition, section 553(d) of the APA, and section 1871(e)(1)(B)(i) of the Act mandate a 30-day delay in effective date after issuance or publication of a rule.

Sections 553(b)(B) and 553(d)(3) of the APA provide for exceptions from the notice and comment and delay in effective date APA requirements. In cases in which these exceptions apply, sections 1871(b)(2)(C) and 1871(e)(1)(B)(ii) of the Act provide exceptions from the notice and 60-day comment period and delay in effective date requirements viagra meme of the Act as well. Section 553(b)(B) of the APA and section 1871(b)(2)(C) of the Act authorize an agency to dispense with normal rulemaking requirements for good cause if the agency makes a finding that the notice and comment process are impracticable, unnecessary, or contrary to the public interest. In addition, both section 553(d)(3) of the APA and section 1871(e)(1)(B)(ii) of the Act allow the agency to avoid the 30-day delay in effective date where such delay is contrary to the public interest and an agency includes a statement of support. We believe that this final rule correction does not constitute a rule that would be subject to viagra meme the notice and comment or delayed effective date requirements.

This document corrects typographical errors in the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule and the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule correcting amendment, but does not make substantive changes to the policies or payment methodologies that were adopted in the final rule. As a result, this final rule correction is intended to ensure that the information in the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule accurately reflects the policies adopted in that document. In addition, viagra meme even if this were a rule to which the notice and comment procedures and delayed effective date requirements applied, we find that there is good cause to waive such requirements. Undertaking further notice and comment procedures to incorporate the corrections in this document into the final rule or delaying the effective date would be contrary to the public interest because it is in the public's interest for providers to receive appropriate payments in as timely a manner as possible, and to ensure that the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule accurately reflects our policies. Furthermore, such procedures viagra meme would be unnecessary, as we are not altering our payment methodologies or policies, but rather, we are simply implementing correctly the methodologies and policies that we previously proposed, requested comment on, and subsequently finalized.

This final rule correction is intended solely to ensure that the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule accurately reflects these payment methodologies and policies. Therefore, we believe we have good cause to waive the notice and comment and effective date requirements. Moreover, even if these corrections were considered to be retroactive rulemaking, they would viagra meme be authorized under section 1871(e)(1)(A)(ii) of the Act, which permits the Secretary to issue a rule for the Medicare program with retroactive effect if the failure to do so would be contrary to the public interest. As we have explained previously, we believe it would be contrary to the public interest not to implement the corrections in this final rule correction because it is in the public's interest for providers to receive appropriate payments in as timely a manner as possible, and to ensure that the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule accurately reflects our policies. IV.

Correction of viagra meme Errors A. Correction of Errors in the Final Rule In FR Doc. 2021-16519 of August 13, 2021(86 FR 44774), we are making the following corrections. 1. On page 44974, in the table titled “Continuation of Technologies Approved for FY 2021 New Technology Add-On Payments and Still Considered New for FY 2022, the entry in row 3 is corrected to read as follows.

B. Correction of Errors in the Correcting Document In FR Doc. 2021-22724 of October 20, 2021 (86 FR 58019), we are making the following corrections. 1. On page 58023, lower half of the page (following the table), third column.

A. Preceding the beginning of the partial paragraph (before item 10), the paragraph is corrected by adding items 7 through 9 to read as follows. €œ7. On page 45133, top of the page, a. First column, partial paragraph, (1) Line 4, the figure “$31,500” is corrected to read “$63,000”.

(2) Line 5, the figure “$10,500” is corrected to read “$21,000”. B. Second column, partial paragraph, last line, the figure “$20,475” is corrected to read “$40,950”. 8. On page 45150, second column, last full paragraph, lines 27 through 31, the phrase “in combination with one of the following ICD-10-CM codes.

D65 (Disseminated intravascular coagulation) or D68.2 (Hereditary deficiency of other clotting factors).” is corrected to read “in combination with one of the following ICD-10-CM codes. D62 (Acute posthemorrhagic anemia), D65 (Disseminated intravascular coagulation), D68.2 (Hereditary deficiency of other clotting factors), D68.4 (Acquired coagulation factor deficiency) or D68.9 (Coagulation defect, unspecified).”. Start Printed Page 67876 9. On page 45157, top third of the page, first column, first partial paragraph, last line, the phrase, “technology group 6).” is corrected to read “technology group 6) in combination with the following ICD-10-CM codes. Y95 (Nosocomial condition) and one of the following.

J14 (Pneumonia due to Hemophilus influenzae) J15.0 (Pneumonia due to Klebsiella pneumoniae), J15.1 (Pneumonia due to Pseudomonas), J15.5 (Pneumonia due to Escherichia coli), J15.6 (Pneumonia due to other Gram-negative bacteria), J15.8 (Pneumonia due to other specified bacteria), or J95.851 (Ventilator associated pneumonia) and one of the following. B96.1 (Klebsiella pneumoniae [K. Pneumoniae] as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere), B96.20 (Unspecified Escherichia coli [E. Coli] as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere), B96.21 (Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli [E. Coli] [STEC] O157 as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere), B96.22 (Other specified Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli [E.

Coli] [STEC] as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere), B96.23 (Unspecified Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli [E. Coli] [STEC] as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere, B96.29 (Other Escherichia coli [E. Coli] as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere), B96.3 (Hemophilus influenzae [H. Influenzae] as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere, B96.5 (Pseudomonas (aeruginosa) (mallei) (pseudomallei) as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere), or B96.89 (Other specified bacterial agents as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere).” b. Within the partial paragraph (item 10), line 8, the code number “J14.0” is corrected to read “J14”.

Start Signature Karuna Seshasai, Executive Secretary to the Department, Department of Health and Human Services. End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR Doc. 2021-26069 Filed 11-29-21. 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4120-01-P.

Start Preamble Centers for Medicare & get viagra prescription online. Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Final rule get viagra prescription online.

Correction. This document corrects typographical errors in the final rule that appeared in the August 13, 2021, Federal Register as well as additional typographical errors in a related correcting amendment that appeared in the October 20, 2021, Federal Register. The final get viagra prescription online rule was titled “Medicare Program.

Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2022 Rates. Quality Programs and Medicare Promoting Interoperability Program Requirements for Eligible Hospitals and Critical Access Hospitals. Changes to get viagra prescription online Medicaid Provider Enrollment.

And Changes to the Medicare Shared Savings Program”.   Effective date. This correcting document is effective get viagra prescription online on November 29, 2021.

Applicability date. This correcting document is applicable for discharges beginning October 1, 2021. Start Further Info Allison Pompey, (410) 786-2348, New Technology Add-On Payment Issues get viagra prescription online.

End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information I. Background In the final rule which appeared in the August 13, 2021, Federal Register (86 FR 44774) entitled “Medicare Program. Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute get viagra prescription online Care Hospitals and the Long Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2022 Rates.

Quality Programs and Medicare Promoting Interoperability Program Requirements for Eligible Hospitals and Critical Access Hospitals. Changes to Medicaid Provider Enrollment. And Changes to the Medicare Shared Savings Program” (hereinafter referred to as the FY get viagra prescription online 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule), there were a number of technical and typographical errors.

To correct the typographical and technical errors in the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule, we published a correcting document that appeared in the October 20, 2021, Federal Register (86 FR 58019) (hereinafter referred to as the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS correcting amendment). In FR Doc. 2021-22724 of October 20, get viagra prescription online 2021 (86 FR 58019), there was an inadvertent omission and typographical error that are identified and corrected in this correcting document.

This document also corrects additional typographical errors in FR Doc. 2021-16519 of August 13, 2021 (86 FR 44774). The corrections in this correcting document are applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2021, as if they had been included in the document that appeared in get viagra prescription online the August 13, 2021, Federal Register.

II. Summary of Errors A. Summary of Errors in the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS Final Rule On page 44974, in the table displaying the continuation of technologies approved for FY 2021 new technology add-on payments and still considered new for FY 2022, we are correcting inadvertent typographical errors in the coding used to identify cases involving the use of the BAROSTIM NEOTM System get viagra prescription online that are eligible for new technology add-on payments.

B. Summary of Errors in the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS Correcting Document On page 58023 in section IV.A. Of the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS correcting amendment, we inadvertently get viagra prescription online omitted corrections to pages 45133, 45150, and 45157 of the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule, as summarized on page 58019 in section II.A.

Of the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS correcting amendment. We are also correcting an inadvertent typographical error in the coding used to identify cases involving the use of RECARBRIOTM that are eligible for new technology add-on payments. III get viagra prescription online.

Waiver of Proposed Rulemaking and Delay in Effective Date Under 5 U.S.C. 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), the agency is required to publish a notice of the proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register before the provisions of a rule take effect. Similarly, section 1871(b)(1) of the Act requires the Secretary to provide for notice of the proposed rulemaking get viagra prescription online in the Federal Register and provide a Start Printed Page 67875 period of not less than 60 days for public comment.

In addition, section 553(d) of the APA, and section 1871(e)(1)(B)(i) of the Act mandate a 30-day delay in effective date after issuance or publication of a rule. Sections 553(b)(B) and 553(d)(3) of the APA provide for exceptions from the notice and comment and delay in effective date APA requirements. In cases in which these exceptions apply, sections 1871(b)(2)(C) and 1871(e)(1)(B)(ii) of the Act provide exceptions from the notice and 60-day get viagra prescription online comment period and delay in effective date requirements of the Act as well.

Section 553(b)(B) of the APA and section 1871(b)(2)(C) of the Act authorize an agency to dispense with normal rulemaking requirements for good cause if the agency makes a finding that the notice and comment process are impracticable, unnecessary, or contrary to the public interest. In addition, both section 553(d)(3) of the APA and section 1871(e)(1)(B)(ii) of the Act allow the agency to avoid the 30-day delay in effective date where such delay is contrary to the public interest and an agency includes a statement of support. We believe that this final rule get viagra prescription online correction does not constitute a rule that would be subject to the notice and comment or delayed effective date requirements.

This document corrects typographical errors in the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule and the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule correcting amendment, but does not make substantive changes to the policies or payment methodologies that were adopted in the final rule. As a result, this final rule correction is intended to ensure that the information in the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule accurately reflects the policies adopted in that document. In addition, even if this were a rule to which the notice and comment procedures and delayed effective date requirements applied, we find that there is good cause to waive such get viagra prescription online requirements.

Undertaking further notice and comment procedures to incorporate the corrections in this document into the final rule or delaying the effective date would be contrary to the public interest because it is in the public's interest for providers to receive appropriate payments in as timely a manner as possible, and to ensure that the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule accurately reflects our policies. Furthermore, such procedures would be unnecessary, as we are not altering our get viagra prescription online payment methodologies or policies, but rather, we are simply implementing correctly the methodologies and policies that we previously proposed, requested comment on, and subsequently finalized. This final rule correction is intended solely to ensure that the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule accurately reflects these payment methodologies and policies.

Therefore, we believe we have good cause to waive the notice and comment and effective date requirements. Moreover, even if these corrections were considered to be retroactive rulemaking, they would be authorized under section 1871(e)(1)(A)(ii) of the Act, which permits the Secretary to issue a rule for the Medicare program with retroactive effect if get viagra prescription online the failure to do so would be contrary to the public interest. As we have explained previously, we believe it would be contrary to the public interest not to implement the corrections in this final rule correction because it is in the public's interest for providers to receive appropriate payments in as timely a manner as possible, and to ensure that the FY 2022 IPPS/LTCH PPS final rule accurately reflects our policies.

IV. Correction of get viagra prescription online Errors A. Correction of Errors in the Final Rule In FR Doc.

2021-16519 of August 13, 2021(86 FR 44774), we are making the following corrections. 1. On page 44974, in the table titled “Continuation of Technologies Approved for FY 2021 New Technology Add-On Payments and Still Considered New for FY 2022, the entry in row 3 is corrected to read as follows.

B. Correction of Errors in the Correcting Document In FR Doc. 2021-22724 of October 20, 2021 (86 FR 58019), we are making the following corrections.

1. On page 58023, lower half of the page (following the table), third column. A.

Preceding the beginning of the partial paragraph (before item 10), the paragraph is corrected by adding items 7 through 9 to read as follows. €œ7. On page 45133, top of the page, a.

First column, partial paragraph, (1) Line 4, the figure “$31,500” is corrected to read “$63,000”. (2) Line 5, the figure “$10,500” is corrected to read “$21,000”. B.

Second column, partial paragraph, last line, the figure “$20,475” is corrected to read “$40,950”. 8. On page 45150, second column, last full paragraph, lines 27 through 31, the phrase “in combination with one of the following ICD-10-CM codes.

D65 (Disseminated intravascular coagulation) or D68.2 (Hereditary deficiency of other clotting factors).” is corrected to read “in combination with one of the following ICD-10-CM codes. D62 (Acute posthemorrhagic anemia), D65 (Disseminated intravascular coagulation), D68.2 (Hereditary deficiency of other clotting factors), D68.4 (Acquired coagulation factor deficiency) or D68.9 (Coagulation defect, unspecified).”. Start Printed Page 67876 9.

On page 45157, top third of the page, first column, first partial paragraph, last line, the phrase, “technology group 6).” is corrected to read “technology group 6) in combination with the following ICD-10-CM codes. Y95 (Nosocomial condition) and one of the following. J14 (Pneumonia due to Hemophilus influenzae) J15.0 (Pneumonia due to Klebsiella pneumoniae), J15.1 (Pneumonia due to Pseudomonas), J15.5 (Pneumonia due to Escherichia coli), J15.6 (Pneumonia due to other Gram-negative bacteria), J15.8 (Pneumonia due to other specified bacteria), or J95.851 (Ventilator associated pneumonia) and one of the following.

B96.1 (Klebsiella pneumoniae [K. Pneumoniae] as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere), B96.20 (Unspecified Escherichia coli [E. Coli] as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere), B96.21 (Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli [E.

Coli] [STEC] O157 as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere), B96.22 (Other specified Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli [E. Coli] [STEC] as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere), B96.23 (Unspecified Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli [E. Coli] [STEC] as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere, B96.29 (Other Escherichia coli [E.

Coli] as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere), B96.3 (Hemophilus influenzae [H. Influenzae] as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere, B96.5 (Pseudomonas (aeruginosa) (mallei) (pseudomallei) as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere), or B96.89 (Other specified bacterial agents as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere).” b. Within the partial paragraph (item 10), line 8, the code number “J14.0” is corrected to read “J14”.

Start Signature Karuna Seshasai, Executive Secretary to the Department, Department of Health and Human Services. End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR Doc. 2021-26069 Filed 11-29-21.